Introducing Our Probes
Our portfolio of patented DNA nanoprobes allow the creation of proprietary sub-cellular Biomarkers, by profiling the parameters of key chemicals within:
Endosome (Early, Recycling and Late)
Our proprietary biomarkers can be used to accelerate drug development via high-throughput screening and provide reliable information about presence, progression, and treatment response for diseases, including COVID-19, Lysosomal Storage Disorders, Alzheimer's Disease, for example.
Esya’s patented Chloride sensor called Clensor, can measure chloride levels inside cells, by detecting fluorescence changes correlated to amounts of chloride. Research conducted by Chakraborty et al. using Esya’s probes revealed that the lysosomes contain high levels of chloride and when lysosomal chloride levels are compromised, it directly impacts the capacity of the lysosome to break down molecules.
Dual Ca2+ and pH Sensor
It is extremely challenging to quantitate lumenal Ca2+ in acidic Ca2+ stores of the cell, because all Ca2+ indicators are pH sensitive, and Ca2+ transport is coupled to pH in acidic organelles. Therefore, we have developed a pH-correctable, fluorescent DNA-based reporter CalipHluor, that is targetable to specific organelles where it can measure both Ca2+ and pH. By ratiometrically reporting lumenal both ions simultaneously, CalipHluor functions as a pH-correctable Ca2+ reporter.
Dual Chloride and pH Sensor
Our sensor that measures chloride and pH simultaneously is called ChloropHore. It allows us to chemically resolve lysosome subpopulations by quantitatively imaging pH and chloride simultaneously in the same lysosome and providing this information with single-lysosome resolution in live cells. We call this technology two-ion measurement or 2-IM. 2IM enables investigators to chemically resolve lysosomal populations, help understand the broader role the lysosome in health and disease, assess lysosomal integrity quantitatively and therefore, quantify the efficacy of drugs that work by alleviating lysosomal dysfunction.
Dual hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and pH Sensor
We introduce a fluorescent, DNA-based com- 15 bination reporter, cHOClate, which simultaneously images hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and pH quantitatively. Using cHOClate targeted to phagosomes in live cells, we can successfully map the production of a specific ROS, I.e., HOCl, in phagosomes. For example, using this sensor, we found that phagosomal acidification was gradual in macrophages and when acidity reached a critical level, HOCl was released in a burst. This revealed that phagosome– lysosome fusion was essential not only for phagosome acidification, but also for providing the chloride necessary for myeloperoxidase activity. This method can be expanded to image several kinds of ROS and RNS and be readily applied to identify how resistant pathogens can evade phagosomal killing.
Enzymatic activity Sensor
Cellular reporters of enzyme activity are based on either fluorescent proteins or small molecules. Such reporters provide information corresponding to wherever inside cells the enzyme is maximally active and preclude minor populations present in subcellular compartments. At Esya, we have developed a chemical imaging strategy to selectively interrogate the activity of enzyme that are located within a specific organelle such as the lysosome or the late endosome. This new technology confines the detection chemistry to the designated organelle, enabling imaging of enzymatic cleavage exclusively within the organelle.
Our pH sensors are DNA nanodevices that maps pH levels accurately inside organelles of live cells. The interior of lysosomes are acidic (~pH 4.8) and numerous storage disorders are characterized by irregular Ph levels. Our DNA probes can help monitor the Ph Levels and responses to drug therapies non-invasively with a single test.
Ca2+ regulates diverse cellular functions upon its controlled release from different intracellular stores that initiate signaling cascades . Lysosomes have recently been recognized as ‘acidic Ca2+ stores’, and lumenal Ca2+ is central to diverse functions.” Our Ca2+ sensors are DNA nanodevices that maps Ca2+ levels inside organelles of live cells.
Esya's Unique Proposition
Esya In Cell and In Vitro products are ratiometric probes that allow direct comparison of results across multiple samples, which distinguish them from other options currently available on the market. For High Throughput Screening (HTS) assays, Esya probes ensure that observable changes come only from the biological sample and not from the reagent. With other commercially available alternatives, the variability comes from both the biological samples as well as the probes themselves. Our probes can be used directly on all types of patient-derived cells including skin biopsies and circulating cells. This is also not the case with most probes on the market.